Timeline of the 20th century Map of the British Empire as of At its height, it was the largest empire in history. Nationalism became a major political issue in the world in the 20th century, acknowledged in international law along with the right of nations to self-determinationofficial decolonization in the mid-century, and related regional conflicts.
Northern Ireland civil rights movement Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom which has witnessed violence over many decades, known as the Troublesarising from tensions between the British UnionistProtestant majority and the Irish NationalistCatholic minority following the Partition of Ireland in The civil rights struggle in Northern Ireland can be traced to activists in Dungannon, led by Austin Curriewho were fighting for equal access to public housing for the members of the Catholic community.
This domestic issue would not have led to a fight for civil rights were it not for the fact that being a registered householder was a qualification for local government franchise in Northern Ireland.
The CSJ promised the Catholic community that their cries would be heard. They challenged the government and promised that they would take their case to the Commission for Human Rights in Strasbourg and to the United Nations. NICRA campaigned in the late sixties and early seventies, consciously modelling itself on the American civil rights movement and using similar methods of civil resistance.
NICRA organised marches and protests to demand equal rights and an end to discrimination. NICRA originally had five main demands: All of these specific demands were aimed at an ultimate goal that had been the one of women at the very beginning: Civil rights activists all over Northern Ireland soon launched a campaign of civil resistance.
Violence escalated, resulting in the rise of the Provisional Irish Republican Army IRA from the Catholic community, a group reminiscent of those from the War of Independence and the Civil War that occurred in the s that had launched a campaign of violence to end British rule in Northern Ireland.
Loyalist paramilitaries countered this with a defensive campaign of violence and the British government responded with a policy of internment without trial of suspected IRA members.
For more than people, the internment lasted several years. The huge majority of those interned by the British forces were Catholic. Inin a case brought by the government of the Republic of Ireland against the government of the United Kingdomthe European Court of Human Rights ruled that the interrogation techniques approved for use by the British army on internees in amounted to "inhuman and degrading" treatment.
The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association fought for the end of discrimination toward Catholics and did not take a position on the legitimacy of the state. He wrote that "we were able to see an example of the fact that you didn't just have to take it, you could fight back".
The Battle of the Bogside started on 12 August when an Apprentice Boys, a Protestant order, parade passed through Waterloo Place, where a large crowd was gathered at the mouth of William Street, on the edge of the Bogside. Different accounts describe the first outbreak of violence, with reports stating that it was either an attack by youth from the Bogside on the RUC, or fighting broke out between Protestants and Catholics.
The violence escalated and barricades were erected. Proclaiming this district to be the Free DerryBogsiders carried on fights with the RUC for days using stones and petrol bombs. The government finally withdrew the RUC and replaced it with the army, which disbanded the crowds of Catholics who were barricaded in the Bogside.
Fourteen unarmed Catholic civil rights marchers protesting against internment were shot dead by the British army and many were left wounded on the streets. The peace process has made significant gains in recent years.
Through open dialogue from all parties, a state of ceasefire by all major paramilitary groups has lasted. A stronger economy improved Northern Ireland's standard of living. Civil rights issues have become less of a concern for many in Northern Ireland over the past 20 years as laws and policies protecting their rights, and forms of affirmative action, have been implemented for all government offices and many private businesses.
Tensions still exist, but the vast majority of citizens are no longer affected by violence. Canada's Quiet Revolution Main articles: Quiet Revolution and October Crisis The s brought intense political and social change to the Canadian province of Quebecwith the election of Liberal Premier Jean Lesage after the death of Maurice Duplessiswhose government was widely viewed as corrupt.
They enacted legislation meant to enshrine French as the language of business in the province, while also controversially restricting the usage of English on signs and restricting the eligibility of students to be taught in English.
Movements for civil rights in the United States Main articles: African-American Civil Rights Movement —African-American Civil Rights Movement —civil rights movementand Timeline of the civil rights movement Movements for civil rights in the United States include noted legislation and organized efforts to abolish public and private acts of racial discrimination against African Americans and other disadvantaged groups between andparticularly in the southern United States.
It is sometimes referred to as the Second Reconstruction era, alluding to the unresolved issues of the Reconstruction Era —This database provides access to digital collections of primary sources (photos, letters, diaries, artifacts, etc.) that document the history of women in the United States.
These diverse collections range from Ancestral Pueblo pottery to Katrina Thomas's photographs of ethnic weddings from the late 20th century. The Civil Rights Movement And The Second Reconstruction, — _3_brooke_edwin_nara_PSDxml Image courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration Sworn in to the United States Senate on January 3, , Edward For an overview of the movement and its impact on lateth-century black America see Manning.
The 20th century was a time of enormous changes in American life. The beginning of the 21st century seems a suitable time to look back over the past years and see how the United States has developed, for better and worse, during that period of its history. In the United States, the second half of the 20th century brought about historical socio-political movements that revolutionized American culture.
Following the end of World War II in , the U.S. entered a new era, experiencing a sharp growth in population, a . TRENDS IN 20TH CENTURY UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT ETHICS. by. Steven Cohen and William B.
Eimicke, School of International and The first era lasted from the late nineteenth century until the early 's and we have termed. Cold War, the Space Race, the Civil Rights Movement, assassinations of political leaders such as the President. The late 19th and early 20th centuries.
As educational opportunity expanded among African Americans after the war, a self-conscious black middle class with serious literary ambitions emerged in .