Case study of autism spectrum disorder

Compared with the DSM-IV diagnosis of autistic disorder, the DSM-5 diagnosis of ASD no longer includes communication as a separate criterion, and has merged social interaction and communication into one category.

Case study of autism spectrum disorder

For those with SID, sensory information is sensed normally, but perceived abnormally. This is not the same as blindness or deafness, because, unlike those disorders, sensory information is sensed by people with SID, but the information tends to be analyzed by the brain in an unusual way that may cause distress or confusion.

SID can be a disorder on its own, but it can also be a characteristic of other neurological conditions, including Autism Spectrum Disorders, dyslexiadevelopmental dyspraxiaTourette syndromemultiple sclerosis, and speech delays, among many others.

Case study of autism spectrum disorder

Unlike many other neurological problems that require validation by a licensed psychiatrist or physician, this condition is most often diagnosed by an occupational therapist. It is increasingly being diagnosed by developmental pediatricians, pediatric neurologists, and child psychologists.

There is no known cure; however, there are many treatments available. Meaning of sensory integration Sensory integration is the ability to take in information through the senses of touch, movement, smell, taste, vision, and hearing, and to combine the resulting perceptions with prior information, memories, and knowledge already stored in the brain, in order to derive coherent meaning from processing the stimuli.

The mid-brain and brainstem regions of the central nervous system are early centers in the processing pathway for sensory integration. These brain regions are involved in processes including coordination, attention, arousal, and autonomic function.

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After sensory information passes through these centers, it is then routed to brain regions responsible for emotions, memory, and higher level cognitive functions.

Greenspan as supported by the research of Lucy, J. These new terms are meant to increase understanding between Occupational Therapists and other professionals who frequently encournter SPD and physicians and other health professionals who approach sensory integration from a more neurobiological vantage.

This understanding is critical as physicians are responsible for diagnosing SPD, which is a necessary step in accessing reimbursement eventually from insurance companies for professional services to treat SPD.

Case study of autism spectrum disorder

Sensory Processing Disorder is being used as a global umbrella term that includes all forms of this disorder, including three primary diagnostic groups: This information is adapted from research and publications by: Sensory modulation Sensory modulation refers to a complex central nervous system process by which neural messages that convey information about the intensity, frequency, duration, complexity, and novelty of sensory stimuli are adjusted.

Behaviorally, this is manifested in the tendency to generate responses that are appropriately graded in relation to incoming sensations, neither underreacting nor overreacting to them. Sensory Modulation Problems Sensory registration problems - This refers to the process by which the central nervous system attends to stimuli.

This usually involves an orienting response. Sensory registration problems are characterized by failure to notice stimuli that ordinarily are salient to most people. Sensory defensiveness - A condition characterized by overresponsivity in one or more systems.

Gravitational insecurity - A sensory modulation condition in which there is a tendency to react negatively and fearfully to movement experiences, particularly those involving a change in head position and movement backward or upward through space.

Case-Smith, Hyposensitivities and hypersensitivities Sensory integration disorders vary between individuals in their characteristics and intensity.

Some people are so mildly afflicted, the disorder is barely noticeable, while others are so impaired they have trouble with daily functioning. Children can be born hypersensitive or hyposensitive to varying degrees and may have trouble in one sensory modality, a few, or all of them.

Hypersensitivity is also known as sensory defensiveness. Examples of hypersensitivity include feeling pain from clothing rubbing against skin, an inability to tolerate normal lighting in a room, a dislike of being touched especially light touch and discomfort when one looks directly into the eyes of another person.

Hyposensitivity is characterized by an unusually high tolerance for environmental stimuli. A child with hyposensitivity might appear restless and seek sensory stimulation.Background It has been suggested that vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is a cause of autism.

Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'autism spectrum disorder.'.

The Study. Video modeling involves the learner viewing videos of a model demonstrating a target skill. According to the National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders (), video modeling is an evidenced-based intervention for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in elementary through middle school.

Autism can develop at various ages.

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Some infants may show early signs of autism while others may develop normally until 15 to 30 months. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, Revised with Follow-Up (M-CHAT-R/F) is a 2 stage screening tool for parents to assess their child's risk for autism spectrum disorder.

Pediatricians have an important role not only in early recognition and evaluation of autism spectrum disorders but also in chronic management of these disorders. The primary goals of treatment are to maximize the child's ultimate functional independence and quality of life by minimizing the core autism spectrum disorder features, facilitating development and learning, promoting socialization.

Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of neurodevelopmental disorders that includes autism and related conditions. Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder present with two types of symptoms: problems in social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities.

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