The first thing we can be aware of is our existence, even when doubting everything else Cogito ergo sum. To both philosophers, consciousness is intentional, meaning that there is only consciousness of something. An ego must be a structure outside consciousness, so that there can be consciousness of the ego. While being-in-itself is something that can only be approximated by human being, being-for-itself is the being of consciousness.
Sartre illustrates his belief using the example of the paper cutter.
When considering a paper cutter, we would assume that the creator had a plan an essence for it. Due to there being no creator of humans, we have no essence. This means that our actions and behaviour cannot be explained by referencing human nature, instead we are necessarily fully responsible for our actions.
The essence or nature of a paper cutter is to cut paper; this is the purpose the maker of it had in mind. There is only what we choose to do.
Psychologists such as Sigmund Freud believe our early years have an impact on our future actions. Freud claimed that our moral actions are often caused by repressed or subconscious memories or feelings stemming from childhood. Skinner said that we cannot be held morally responsible for behaviour determined by our psychological makeup because we could not have chosen to behave differently.
Other thinkers, including Thomas Sowell, argue that our actions are in line with our social conditioning. We then follow a sociologically determined path set by our upbringing, education and social groups etc. Libertarianism has the major flaw of not taking into account our experiences when making decisions and when forming our morality.
For instance, it is arguable that Sartre believed what he did because of the experiences he had during the war, not because of his freedom. Another valid argument is that genetics determine physical and behavioural aspects of humanity.
All of these viewpoints state that humans are not free to choose and our lives and personalities are already determined by our past experiences, psychological makeup, socialisation and genetics.
This means, in addition, that our responsibility is lessened somewhat as some of our actions are already determined for us. We have all had experiences where the need to choose between multiple actions has caused us emotional turmoil.
Although we are free to make this choice, we are in a way forced to make it. Even when we ask someone for assistance with an ethical dilemma it is not their answer that determines our solution and consequent action.
It is our choice to ask them in the first place and usually we already know what they are going to say; we then decide whether to follow their advice.
In conclusion, Sartre examined the daunting nature of decision making and unlimited freedom. The moral responsibility we have in the case of absolute freedom is crippling and causes great despair.
However, this approach could be incorrect because there are aspects of our lives and makeup that influence our behaviour. If an action is determined by factors outside our control, we may not have the moral responsibility for it.
From this viewpoint we are not condemned to freedom but it instead allows us some input into our behaviour and therefore our lives. How to cite this page Choose cite format:Essay on Sartre's "man Is Condemned to Be Free" This Essay Essay on Sartre's "man Is Condemned to Be Free" and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on benjaminpohle.com4/4(1).
Jean Paul Sartre´s Existential Philosophy Essay Words | 5 Pages. Jean Paul Sartre's Existential philosophy posits that is in man, and in man alone, that existence precedes essence.
Simply put, Sartre means that man is first, and only subsequently to his “isness” does he become this or that. Man Is Condemned to be Free” Jean-Paul Sartre, a French existentialist philosopher, was one of the leading figures in 20th century French philosophy.
In both of his major philosophical works, “Being and Nothingness” and his famous talk, “Existentialism is a Humanism”, he emphasized the statement “ Man is Condemned to be Free ”.
Sartre's famous lecture in defence of Existentialism. Jean-Paul Sartre Existentialism Is a Humanism. Written: He thinks that every man, without any support or help whatever, is condemned at every instant to invent man. As Ponge has written in a very fine article, “Man is the future of man.” That is exactly true.
Essay examples you see on this page are free essays, available to anyone. It is not recommended to submit free essays or any of their parts for credit at your school as these are easily detected by plagiarism checkers. Satre: Condemned to Be Free. Topics: World War II, Essay about Man Is Condemned to Free “Man Is Condemned to be Free” Jean-Paul Sartre, a French existentialist philosopher, was one of the leading figures in .