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Plagiary, a derivative of plagiarus, was introduced into English in by dramatist Ben Jonson during the Jacobean Era to describe someone guilty of literary theft.
While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts, and false claims of authorship generally constitute plagiarism regardless of whether the material is protected by copyright. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material whose use is restricted by copyright is used without consent.
In academia and journalism[ edit ] Journalistic essay format academiaplagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud, and offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion.
Some institutions use plagiarism detection software to uncover potential plagiarism and to deter students from plagiarizing. Some universities address the issue of academic integrity by providing students with thorough orientations, required writing courses, and clearly articulated honor codes[ citation needed ].
Indeed, there is a virtually uniform understanding among college students that plagiarism is wrong[ citation needed ]. Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by failing to include quotations or give the appropriate citation.
While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internetwhere articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier. No universally adopted definition of academic plagiarism exists  ; however, this section provides several definitions to exemplify the most common characteristics of academic plagiarism.
According to Bela Gipp  academic plagiarism encompasses: Fishman, plagiarism occurs when someone: Uses words, ideas, or work products Attributable to another identifiable person or source Without attributing the work to the source from which it was obtained In a situation in which there is a legitimate expectation of original authorship In order to obtain some benefit, credit, or gain which need not be monetary  Furthermore, plagiarism is defined differently among institutions of higher learning and universities: Naval Academy defines plagiarism as "the use of the words, information, insights, or ideas of another without crediting that person through proper citation.
Taking passages from their own previous work without adding citations. Using quotations, but not citing the source. Interweaving various sources together in the work without citing. Citing some, but not all passages that should be cited. Melding together cited and uncited sections of the piece.
Providing proper citations, but fails to change the structure and wording of the borrowed ideas enough.
Inaccurately citing the source. Fails to bring original thought into the text. Sanctions for student plagiarism[ edit ] In the academic world, plagiarism by students is usually considered a very serious offense that can result in punishments such as a failing grade on the particular assignment, the entire course, or even being expelled from the institution[ citation needed ].
Generally, the punishment increases as a person enters higher institutions of learning[ citation needed ]. The seriousness with which academic institutions address student plagiarism may be tempered by a recognition that students may not fully understand what plagiarism is.
A study showed that students who were new to university study did not have a good understanding of even the basic requirements of how to attribute sources in written academic work, yet students were very confident that they understood what referencing and plagiarism are.There are multiple schools of journalistic writing.
You may be asked to use AP, Chicago, MLA, APA or another format. Each is a standardization of how to cite sources, use contractions, write numerals, capitalize, format headlines and more.
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Hiroshima, is a journalistic narrative, written in third person and focusing on the action of the six main characters. The setting is in Hiroshima, Japan. The story unfolds on the morning of August 6th, Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England.
He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award. Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers.