Building on commercial links in the wool trade promoted during the reign of King Richard III of England, Henry established the modern English merchant marine system, which greatly expanded English shipbuilding and seafaring. Henry established the munitions-based Royal Navy that was able to hold off the Spanish Armada in Ireland The first substantial achievements of the colonial empire stem from the Act for Kingly Title, passed by the Irish parliament in
The New Imperialism c. The foreign counterpart to this phenomenon was the New Imperialism. The Great Powers of Europe suddenly shook off almost a century of apathy toward overseas colonies and, in the space of 20 years, partitioned almost the entire uncolonized portion of the globe.
Theories postulating Europe's need to export surplus capital do not fit the facts.
Only Britain and France were capital-exporting countries inand in years to come their investors preferred to export capital to other European countries especially Russia or the Western Hemisphere rather than to their own colonies.
The British remained free-trade throughout the era of the New Imperialism, a booming home economy absorbed most German capital, and Italy and Russia were large net importers of capital.
Once the scramble for colonies was complete, pressure groups did form in the various countries to argue the economic promise of imperialism, but just as often governments had to foster colonial development.
In most cases, trade did not lead but followed the flag. Why, then, was the flag planted in the first place? Sometimes it was to protect economic interests, as when the British occupied Egypt inbut more often it was for strategic reasons or in pursuit of national prestige.
One necessary condition for the New Imperialism, often overlooked, is technological.
Prior to the s Europeans could overawe native peoples along the coasts of Africa and Asia but lacked the firepower, mobility, and communications that would have been needed to pacify the interior.
India was the exception, where the British East India Company exploited an anarchic situation and allied itself with selected native rulers against others. The correlation of forces between Europe and the colonizable world shifted, however, with the invention of shallow-draft riverboats, the steamship and telegraph, the repeater rifle and Maxim gun, and the discovery in India that quinine is an effective prophylactic against malaria.
By small groups of European regulars, armed with modern weapons and exercising fire discipline, could overwhelm many times their number of native troops. The scramble for Africa should be dated, not fromwhen the British occupied Egypt, but from the opening of the Suez Canal in The strategic importance of that waterway cannot be overstated.
It was the gateway to India and East Asia and hence a vital interest nonpareil for the British Empire. Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone, otherwise an adamant anticolonialist, then established a British protectorate in Egypt. When the French reacted bitterly, Bismarck further encouraged French colonial expansion in hopes of distracting them from Europe, and he then took his own country into the fray by claiming four large segments of Africa for Germany in In that year the King of the Belgians cast his eye on the entire Congo Basin.
The Berlin West Africa Conference of was called to settle a variety of disputes involved in European colonial occupation, and over the next 10 years all the Great Powers of Europe save Austria and Russia staked out colonies and protectorates on the African continent.
But whatever the ambitions and rivalries of military adventurers, explorers, and private empire-builders on the scene, the cabinets of Europe came to agreements on colonial boundaries with surprising neighbourliness.
Colonial wars did ensue afterbut never between two European colonial powers. It has been suggested that imperial rivalries were a long-range cause of World War I.
It has also been said that they were a safety valve, drawing off European energies that might otherwise have erupted in war much sooner. But the links between imperialism and the war are more subtle.
The heyday of the New Imperialism, especially aftercreated a tacit understanding in the European elites and the broad literate classes that the days of the old European balance of power were over, that a new world order was dawning, and that any nation left behind in the pursuit of world power would sink into obscurity.
This intuition must surely have fed a growing sense of desperation among Germans, and one of paranoia among Britons, about trends in global politics. A second point, subtler still, is that the New Imperialism, while it did not directly provoke World War I, did occasion a transformation of alliances that proved dangerous beyond reckoning once the Great Powers turned their attention back to Europe.
This pseudoscientific social Darwinism appealed to educated Europeans already demoralized by a century of higher criticism of religious scripture and conscious of the competitiveness of their own daily lives in that age of freewheeling industrial capitalism.
By the s books appeared explaining the outcome of the Franco-German War, for instance, with reference to the "vitality" of the Germanic peoples by comparison to the "exhausted" Latins. Pan-Slavic literature extolled the youthful vigour of that race, of whom Russia was seen as the natural leader.
A belief in the natural affinity and superiority of Nordic peoples sustained Joseph Chamberlain's conviction that an Anglo-American-German alliance should govern the world in the 20th century.
Vulgar anthropology explained the relative merits of human races on the basis of physiognomy and brain size, a "scientific" approach to world politics occasioned by the increasing contact of Europeans with Asians and Africans.u.
s. IMPERIALISM Ch 19, Brinkley. I. STIRRINGS OF IMPERIALISM. There had been almost no expansion in the 20 years after the Civil War, but after the U.S. began to look toward territories overseas. The British Empire was known as "the empire on which the sun never sets" The British Empire was, at one time, referred to as "the empire on which the sun never sets" (a phrase previously used to describe the Spanish Empire and later to American influence in the world) because the empire's span.
19th Century America. Updated July 30, JUMP TO.. Primary Documents - Timelines - Maps, - From Jefferson to the coming of the Civil War, Manifest Destiny & the Wild West, Industrial Revolution, Women's Rights, Inventions & Railroad History, The Gilded Age, Spanish-American War & Imperialism, The Progressive Era .
Reasons for imperialism Economics: Europe's search for more natural resources and new markets for products. Hoped to the imperialism would help alleviate the Depression of Learn new imperialism with free interactive flashcards.
Choose from different sets of new imperialism flashcards on Quizlet. occurs at beginning of s - Japanese imperialism/but US steps in & acts as peacemaker San Juan Hill a place in Cuba that Teddy Roosevelt & his Roughriders fought & won against Spanish.