Sexual harassment and how it relates psychoanalytical and conflict theories

About Theories of Workplace Sexual Harassment Laws that protect workers from sexual harassment may reflect different theories of sexual harassment. Laws may treat sexual harassment as discrimination based on sex, as an offense against dignity, or as an issue of health and safety in the workplace. In many developing countries, sexual harassment is viewed as an offense against dignity that results in criminal punishment for the perpetrators.

Sexual harassment and how it relates psychoanalytical and conflict theories

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Abstract Power is at the core of feminist theories of sexual harassment, though it has rarely been measured directly in terms of workplace authority.

While popular characterizations portray male supervisors harassing female subordinates, power-threat theories suggest that women in authority may be more frequent targets.

This article analyzes longitudinal survey data and qualitative interviews from the Youth Development Study YDS to test this idea and to delineate why and how supervisory authority, gender non-conformity, and workplace sex ratios affect harassment. Relative to non-supervisors, female supervisors are more likely to report harassing behaviors and to define their experiences as sexual harassment.

Today, sexual harassment workshops, policies, and grievance procedures are standard features of the human resources landscape, while a robust scholarly literature ties harassment to gender inequalities Martin and other forms of workplace discrimination Lopez, Hodson, and Roscigno Power, at work and in the broader society, pervades each of these literatures and their accounts of harassment Berdahl a ; Rospenda, Richman, and Nawyn ; Welsh Yet, after three decades of scholarship, basic questions about whether and how workplace power affects harassment remain unanswered.

Much of the evidence relies on inconsistent measures, wide-ranging time frames, and narrowly focused samples. With rare exceptions e. In the absence of rigorous qualitative and longitudinal designs, the dynamics of gender, power, and harassment remain poorly understood.

This paper uses quantitative and qualitative data from the Youth Development Study YDS to consider three hypotheses from an integrated feminist model of sexual harassment, testing whether supervisory authority, gender identity, and industry sex composition are linked to experiences of harassment.

Using strong statistical controls for individual differences, our quantitative models predict whether respondents report any harassing behaviors, the number of harassing behaviors they report, and whether they subjectively interpret their experiences as harassment.

After establishing the basic empirical relations using survey data, we analyze qualitative interviews with YDS respondents to delineate and explain the processes underlying these relationships. We then situate both sets of results within theories of gender and power, and extant research on sexual harassment.

Due, in part, to varying definitions and indicators, prevalence estimates vary dramatically Welshleading many researchers to adopt a strategy of triangulation that considers multiple forms or measures e.

Feminist scholarship situates sexual harassment within broader patterns of discrimination, power, and privilege, linking harassment to sex-based inequality MacKinnon Quinn argues that other men, rather than women, are often the intended audience of sexist gestures or comments.

While men may be vulnerable to harassment if they are perceived as feminine DeSouza and Solberg ; Waldo, Berdahl, and Fitzgeraldwomen may be targeted if they challenge their subordinate position in the gender system. Women holding authority positions thus offer an intriguing paradox for theory and research on sexual harassment, with scholars advancing two distinctive positions.

Women supervisors, who hold authority over male co-workers, directly challenge the presumptive superiority of men.

Women continue to be underrepresented in positions of authority or relegated to the lower rungs of management Elliott and Smith ; Gorman ; Kalev ; Reskin ; Reskin and McBrier In fact, women are unlikely to be promoted to management unless a sizeable proportion of women are already in place, highlighting the difficulty of gaining initial entry to such positions Cohen, Broschak, and Haveman Taken together, these processes point to women supervisors as potential targets for harassment.

Maass and colleaguesfor example, find that male participants in a computer image-sharing task sent more pornographic and offensive images to females identifying as feminists than to females adhering to more traditional gender roles. Correspondingly, De Coster and colleagues find that females with greater tenure, independent of age, were more likely to view sexual harassment as a problem for them at work, concluding that the practice is used instrumentally against powerful females who encroach on male territory.

Each of these findings suggests that women supervisors may be more likely to experience sexual harassment than other working women.

It is also possible that supervisors report greater rates of harassment simply because they are more aware of the phenomenon. As a result, supervisors, who are often responsible for fostering a professional work environment free from harassment and discrimination, may be more likely to recall sexualized workplace interactions and to label such experiences as harassment.

Supervisory authority and expressions of gender are also tied to other forms of sex-based discrimination Stainback et al. Sex-based harassment is driven by a motivation to protect sex-based social standing.

For example, Berdahl b finds that females who perform gender in stereotypically masculine ways assertive, dominant, and independent were more likely to experience harassment.

Apart from supervisory authority and expressions of gender, the demography of a workplace also influences harassment experiences.

While sexual harassment occurs across a diverse range of job settings e.Sexual Harassment and how it relates psychoanalytical and conflict theories The issue of sexual harassment has been prevalent throughout this country from the office of the President of the United States, throughout military services and among education.

Sexual harassment and how it relates psychoanalytical and conflict theories

A related criticism of feminist theories of sexual harassment is that they have tended to ignore sexual harassment of males. Lee (, p. ) argues that men who do not behave in accordance with a male stereotype may be harassed and this should also be seen as workplace harassment.

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Sexual harassment and how it relates psychoanalytical and conflict theories

Sociology: Chapter 8. STUDY. (study on conflict theories)both analyzed how capitalism combines with patriarchy to make women economically dependent on men's incomes Sexual harassment *an illegal form of discrimination, involving everything from inappropriate jokes on the job to outright sexual assault to sexual "barter" - all intended.

The theory is focused almost entirely on male development with little mention of female psychosexual development. His theories are difficult to test scientifically.

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Concepts such as the libido are impossible to measure, and therefore cannot be tested. The research that . Sexual Harassment Essay, Research Paper Use FOR REFERENCE OR GUIDANCE ONLY!!! Sexual Harassment and how it relates psychoanalytical and conflict theories The issue of sexual torment has been prevailing throughout this state from the office of the President of the United States, throughout military services and among educational .

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