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Advanced Search Abstract Smoking during pregnancy is harmful to both the foetus and the woman herself. However, in spite of educational efforts, a substantial proportion of pregnant women continue to smoke and many women who do stop smoking during pregnancy resume smoking following childbirth.
To foster successful maternal smoking cessation, public health professionals need to focus on the major determinants of smoking and cessation during and after pregnancy, and then to address these with their intervention efforts. It is important to review contemporary epidemiological evidence on this significant public health issue.
We have identified nine cohort studies, published in international peer-reviewed journals, that have examined determinants of smoking and cessation in pregnant women. The results indicate that the determinants of pregnant smoking and cessation include maternal age, dose and duration of smoking, partner's smoking habit, socioeconomic status, level of eduction, age to start smoking, level of addiction, parity and passive smoking.
However, many other psychosocial factors, which may affect smoking status among pregnant women, remain to be identified. Evidence reviewed here suggests that a more focused, integrated approach and a more comprehensive assessment of major determinants of smoking and cessation during pregnancy will be required as part of any future intervention effort.
Parental smoking also has harmful effects on children's health, especially on the respiratory system NHMRC, Research has identified a wide range of health effects associated with smoking during pregnancy, including childhood cancer and cognitive deficits Simpson et al.
Thus, there is a particularly strong case for public health action to reduce and prevent smoking among pregnant women.
Nationwide data from birth certificates revealed that It is well known that smoking during pregnancy is harmful to both the foetus and pregnant women themselves. However, in spite of educational efforts, a substantial proportion of pregnant women continue to smoke, and many who do stop smoking during pregnancy resume smoking after delivery Stewart and Dunkley, ; Madeley et al.
It has also been reported that smoking during pregnancy may be associated with such characteristics as social status, level of education, age to start smoking, level of addiction, parity and passive smoking Stewart and Dunkley, ; Madeley et al.
Most intervention programmes to assist smoking women to quit have yielded moderate effects, and a recent review found that smoking cessation programmes in pregnancy appear to reduce smoking, low birthweight and pre-term birth Lumley et al.
However, studies have confirmed the difficulty of maintaining post-partum non-smoking status Dolan-Mullen et al. Smoking interventions usually rely on information and personal advice being given to women during pregnancy. The family and social situation, and especially the partner's smoking habits may be of importance for changes in women's smoking behaviour.
Some studies Rubin et al. However, research from England indicates that the prevalence of smoking in pregnancy and the rates of quitting during pregnancy have not changed significantly over the past 10 years Owen et al. There is also evidence indicating that spontaneous quitters are different from women who said they were still smoking, in a range of demographic variables and measures of addictive behaviour Panjari et al.
This paper reviews contemporary epidemiological evidence on this important public health issue, and discusses methodological and other issues, which need to be considered in future studies. However, cross-sectional studies are clearly vulnerable to bias e. Nine cohort studies that assessed determinants of smoking and cessation in pregnant women were identified by using the following key words in various combinations: Of nine studies, two were conducted in Norway Nafstad et al.
These studies primarily examined the determinants of smoking during pregnancy, and a few of them assessed the smoking correlates both during and after pregnancy. To evaluate the international evidence on correlates of pregnant smoking, we adopted and modified the framework that was proposed by Shiffman Shiffman et al.
The potential determinants of pregnant smoking were grouped into seven categories: The following criteria were used in the assessment of evidence on correlates of pregnant smoking: Key determinants of smoking and cessation during and after pregnancy Oslo Cohort Study Norway Nafstad et al.
Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that risk factors for pregnant smoking included lower educational attainment, younger ages and a smoking cohabitant.
Adolescents learn about smoking by hanging around others who smoke. The decision to light up is reinforced by a desire to be accepted by their peer group, to fit in and establish a social identity. Likewise, teens who perceive that their friends disapprove of smoking are less likely to smoke. education, occupation, or social class) than rich men in nearly all countries. In high-income countries, the social gradients of smoking are clearly established for men: (Wardle et al).A striking feature is that smoking prevalence. Poverty and smoking. Poverty and smoking. and. Soon smoking begins to affect the health of the smoker. He becomes a chain-smoker. This smoke is toxic and the nicotine in the cigarette is known to cause cancer.
The cessation rate in pregnancy among women who had a higher education and lived with a non-smoking cohabitant was seven times higher than that in those who had a lower education and lived with a smoking cohabitant. Breastfeeding, education and having a non-smoking cohabitant were associated with a long-term cessation.Prompts for Argumentative Writing Education 1.
Is cheating getting worse? 2. Should students be able to grade their teachers? hand out too many a’s? 4. Should middle school students be drug tested? 5.
Should reading and math be taught in gym class too? 6. How seriously should we take standardized Technology and Social Media Cigarette smoking in the general population shows a pronounced social class gradient.
Data from the Health Survey for England show that 15% of men and 14% of women in social class I smoke, compared with 42% of men and 37% of women in social class V [ 9 ]. Papers Cigarette smoking by socioeconomic group, sex, and age: effects of price, income, and health publicity The main determinants of smoking behaviour in different social groups must be considered if appropriate policies are to be devised to achieve these aims.
economic welfare and social class patterns of smoking Applied Economics. Below is an essay on "Cause And Effect Of Using Social Problem" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
Social problems or known as social issues are matters which directly affect a person or many persons of a society which is consider being problems or issues which related to moral values. Jun 18, · Advantages and Disadvantages of SmokingSmoking is a bad habit widespread among benjaminpohle.com contains dangerous items which destroy the human brain and lungs.
It causes different diseases such as cancer in different areas in the human body. From the religious point of view,it's prohibited. Smoking and Mental Health.
There is a strong association between smoking and mental health conditions. However, people with mental health conditions are generally able to quit smoking if they are given evidenced-based support.