Bythere were more than a dozen Black businesses along King Street ;  the modern-day equivalent is Little Jamaica along Eglinton Avenuewhich contains one of the largest concentrations of Black businesses in Canada. James Townand Lawrence Heightsare popularly associated with Black Canadians, although all are much more racially diverse than is commonly believed. The Toronto suburbs of Brampton and Ajax also have sizable Black populations, which have migrated outward from Toronto over the past decade.
Many writers still treat opium smoking by Chinese as a moral and even ethnic issue, as if Chinese were somehow more guilty than other people of addiction to opiate drugs. Chinese-American historians have tended to shy away from the subject entirely.
Do they feel that it somehow reflects badly on their culture or themselves? Must one keep quiet about one's predecessors' vices, in spite of the horrifying damage that was sometimes caused, in order to validate one's cultural inheritance?
We don't think so. Opium use among Chinese immigrants was very widespread, economically important, and -- until -- perfectly legal in most parts of the United States and Canada. The smugglers of opium, most of whom were European-Americans, were criminals, though tolerated and even respected in the Pacific Northwest.
Smokers of opium, the majority of whom in those days were Chinese, may have been addicts but were neither criminals nor outcasts.
Opium made hard lives more bearable and, perhaps due to easy availability and modest prices, seems not to have caused nearly as much violent crime as alcohol did then or as opioid drugs like heroin and oxycontin do nowadays.
So we propose to discuss opium use among North American Chinese frankly and straightforwardly. We feel that there is no shame in what happened a hundred years ago and that there are lessons in it for the modern world.
While many American and Canadian Chinese of the late s may have been addicts, their cultural systems kept the drug under control in spite of that. We in the early s should learn to do the same. Beecher, the newly appointed and unusually bribe-resistant Collector of the U.
Customs office at Port Townsend, pulls off a coup. Learning that steamers on the Washington-Alaska route often loaded illicit opium at Victoria on the way north and then brought it back south labeled as a staple commodity, he posts a pair of trusted men as spies in Victoria.
In November they send word to Beecher that the steamship Idaho has loaded fourteen suspicious barrels marked "Ships Stores" at Victoria and proceeded north. When the Idaho reappears, it is searched rigorously. Only pounds of opium are found, hidden in a washstand.
What has happened to the rest? Luckily, Beecher's informants learn that most of it has been offloaded at Kassan Bay Fish Saltery at the south end of Alaska. There he discovers the fourteen barrels, labeled "Salted Fish" but filled with smoking opium of the best quality.
This provided the same kind of incentive and potential for abuse as modern rules allowing police departments to keep vehicles used for transporting illegal narcotics. In Beecher's case, he may have been exaggerating the amount he got from reselling the half-pounds of opium.
Customs office in Ogdensburg, NY. Gardner apparently gets out of this by claiming that it was part of his official duties but is then arrested again, for arranging the smuggling of another pounds of opium from Canada to Tacoma on the steamer George Starr.
At his trial on June 29, he is accused of trying to cover his tracks by sending the opium to Wallula in Eastern Washington by train, then to Portland, then to Seattle.
He is further accused of entering into a conspiracy with other customs inspectors. Beecher, Gardner's superior, is not named as a member of the conspiracy but agrees to be a witness for the defense. On O October 6, Gardner's lawyer, J. Charles Haines of Chicago, is arrested in Seattle for having removed the original pounds from Ogdensburg; he presumably has brought it to Washington State and passed it to Gardner.
No Chinese are mentioned in the relevant newspaper articles. It is then either sold to Chinese of shipped to Portland and San Francisco for transportation East in trunks, valises, etc. It found an undeclared quantity of opium and seized it and the vessel. The sale and use of opium did not become illegal in the U.
It was banned in British Columbia a year earlier, in Aug 12, · From fall to fall , I studied the construction of cultural identity through the microcosmic perspective of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as culture for Chinese Canadians between two localities, Hong Kong and the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) for my Master’s research.
What is the Chinese population of the Greater Toronto Area? Update Cancel. ad by TruthFinder.
British administration of Hong Kong. Prior to the handover, the British Government created a special category of British nationality for them--"British Overseas Territory Citizen".
What are good tactics to score free office space in the greater. The Director of the Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office (Toronto), Miss Kathy Chan, speaks at the Markham Business Networking Morning Workshop organised by Hong Kong-Canada Business Association (Greater Toronto Area) on March The Hong Kong Chinese Community is an affluent, educated, and swelling population in the Greater Toronto Area.
The enigma is why they have only made. HKCBA's mission is to expand commercial relationships between Canada and Hong Kong as well as throughout Asia, using Hong Kong as the platform for advancing this objective.
We also promote a strong business and community network without our membership across Canada through our programs. Aver  Burn This Book(/04/03) (Oriental Daily with video) April 3, Yesterday "Four-eyed Brother" Cheng Kam-mun published a Facebook post titled "The battle of the Hong Kong Public Library: spontaneously remove simplified character books from the shelves in order to resist brainwashing.".